This tutorial is available as an IPython notebook here.

Malaya provided basic interface for BERT, specific to Malay language, we called it BERT-Bahasa. This interface not able us to use it to do custom training.

If you want to download pretrained model for BERT-Bahasa and use it for custom transfer-learning, you can download it here,, some notebooks to help you get started,

  1. Text classification.
  2. Text similarity.


  1. Transformer model learn the context of a word based on all of its surroundings (live string), bidirectionally. So it much better understand left and right hand side relationships.
  2. Because of transformer able to leverage to context during live string, we dont need to capture available words in this world, instead capture substrings and build the attention after that. BERT will never have Out-Of-Vocab problem.
  3. BERT achieved new state-of-art for modern NLP, you can read more about the benchmark here.
import malaya
CPU times: user 5.42 s, sys: 953 ms, total: 6.37 s
Wall time: 7.69 s

list BERT-Bahasa available

['multilanguage', 'base', 'small']
  1. multilanguage is pretrained model size BASE trained on multilanguage, released by Google.
  2. base is pretrained model size BASE trained on malay language, released by Malaya.
  3. small is pretrained model size SMALL trained on malay language, released by Malaya.

load BERT-Bahasa

model = malaya.bert.bert(model = 'base')
WARNING: Logging before flag parsing goes to stderr.
W0908 23:12:58.925322 4632950208] From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/bert/ The name tf.gfile.GFile is deprecated. Please use instead.

W0908 23:12:58.929401 4632950208] From /Users/huseinzol/Documents/Malaya/malaya/ The name tf.placeholder is deprecated. Please use tf.compat.v1.placeholder instead.

W0908 23:12:58.949140 4632950208] From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/bert/ The name tf.variable_scope is deprecated. Please use tf.compat.v1.variable_scope instead.

W0908 23:12:58.953647 4632950208] From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/bert/ The name tf.get_variable is deprecated. Please use tf.compat.v1.get_variable instead.

W0908 23:12:59.016011 4632950208] From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/bert/ The name tf.assert_less_equal is deprecated. Please use tf.compat.v1.assert_less_equal instead.

W0908 23:12:59.100100 4632950208] From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/bert/ dense (from tensorflow.python.layers.core) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use keras.layers.dense instead.
W0908 23:13:03.390677 4632950208] From /Users/huseinzol/Documents/Malaya/malaya/ The name tf.InteractiveSession is deprecated. Please use tf.compat.v1.InteractiveSession instead.

W0908 23:13:05.371360 4632950208] From /Users/huseinzol/Documents/Malaya/malaya/ The name tf.train.Saver is deprecated. Please use tf.compat.v1.train.Saver instead.

W0908 23:13:05.747210 4632950208] From /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/tensorflow/python/training/ checkpoint_exists (from is deprecated and will be removed in a future version.
Instructions for updating:
Use standard file APIs to check for files with this prefix.
CPU times: user 10.1 s, sys: 1.72 s, total: 11.9 s
Wall time: 8.94 s
strings = ['Kerajaan galakkan rakyat naik public transport tapi parking kat lrt ada 15. Reserved utk staff rapid je dah berpuluh. Park kereta tepi jalan kang kene saman dgn majlis perbandaran. Kereta pulak senang kene curi. Cctv pun tak ada. Naik grab dah 5-10 ringgit tiap hari. Gampang juga',
           'Alaa Tun lek ahhh npe muka masam cmni kn agong kata usaha kerajaan terdahulu sejak selepas merdeka',
           "Orang ramai cakap nurse kerajaan garang. So i tell u this. Most of our local ppl will treat us as hamba abdi and they don't respect us as a nurse"]

I have random sentences copied from Twitter, searched using kerajan keyword.


v = model.vectorize(strings)
(3, 768)
  1. Vector size for multilanguage is 768.
  2. Vector size for base is 768.
  3. Vector size for small is 512.


Attention is to get which part of the sentence give the impact. Method available for attention,

  • 'last' - attention from last layer.
  • 'first' - attention from first layer.
  • 'mean' - average attentions from all layers.

You can give list of strings or a string to get the attention, in this documentation, I just want to use a string.

model.attention(strings[1], method = 'last')
[[('Alaa', 0.07662392),
  ('Tun', 0.06297707),
  ('lek', 0.05288772),
  ('ahhh', 0.12370589),
  ('npe', 0.031775884),
  ('muka', 0.07801706),
  ('masam', 0.04338463),
  ('cmni', 0.058882464),
  ('kn', 0.054250218),
  ('agong', 0.15547961),
  ('kata', 0.07811978),
  ('usaha', 0.05006122),
  ('kerajaan', 0.041515753),
  ('terdahulu', 0.0357033),
  ('sejak', 0.012836863),
  ('selepas', 0.01774636),
  ('merdeka', 0.02603223)]]
model.attention(strings[1], method = 'first')
[[('Alaa', 0.035761356),
  ('Tun', 0.049164597),
  ('lek', 0.027038181),
  ('ahhh', 0.07766667),
  ('npe', 0.041269727),
  ('muka', 0.021136),
  ('masam', 0.095767364),
  ('cmni', 0.033513222),
  ('kn', 0.019944489),
  ('agong', 0.17159887),
  ('kata', 0.029981887),
  ('usaha', 0.035313524),
  ('kerajaan', 0.039649293),
  ('terdahulu', 0.07565842),
  ('sejak', 0.031608675),
  ('selepas', 0.09213663),
  ('merdeka', 0.12279116)]]
model.attention(strings[1], method = 'mean')
[[('Alaa', 0.067627385),
  ('Tun', 0.05937794),
  ('lek', 0.062164135),
  ('ahhh', 0.05282652),
  ('npe', 0.05113411),
  ('muka', 0.050083853),
  ('masam', 0.05692221),
  ('cmni', 0.07740603),
  ('kn', 0.056951318),
  ('agong', 0.08621354),
  ('kata', 0.06419954),
  ('usaha', 0.057119563),
  ('kerajaan', 0.0406653),
  ('terdahulu', 0.06452254),
  ('sejak', 0.047204666),
  ('selepas', 0.050263014),
  ('merdeka', 0.055318326)]]

Visualize Attention

Before using attention visualization, we need to load D3 into our jupyter notebook first.

  paths: {
      d3: '//',
      jquery: '//',
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
model.visualize_attention('nak makan ayam dgn husein')
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
<IPython.core.display.Javascript object>
from IPython.core.display import Image, display

display(Image('bert-attention.png', width=300))